The body and main sanctuary of a Classical temple, as distinct from its portico and other external parts; sometimes used synonymously with naos, the principal room of a temple where the cult statue is housed. A reinforcing and/or stabilizing element of an architectural frame. Wooden architectural ornament popular with American folk houses in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Stick Style. In the frieze of a Doric order, the rectangular area between triglyphs; often left plain but sometimes decorated with relief ornament. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. On the contrary, cross-in-square churches are more elegant. A traditional ethos encompasses folk lore, music, art, dress, and building methods, among other things. A molding about a fireplace, often highly decorated. The structural units that divide adjacent windows. Four-sided stones – usually porous – are framed by thin, red bricks, the plinths. Before you can begin to use ORACLE, you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner. A molding that projects above a door, window, or archway to throw off rain. FULLY STUDDED: in reference to a type of construction; local term for vertical plank construction.Large vertical planks or studs that are rough sawn or planed are placed next to each other on a sill at the bottom and either extends to a plate at the top or continues to the roof. We distinguish two basilica types: the. Ionic: a type of classical architecture with scroll-like. A small tower that pierces a roofline. Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. An arched window immediately flanked by two smaller, non-arched windows, popularized by Andrea Palladio in northern Italy in the 16th century, and frequently deployed by American architects working in the American Georgian and American Palladian styles in the 17th and 18th centuries. The column and entablature developed on mainland Greece; the fluted columnar shaft is without a base; its capital is an abacus above a simple cushion-like molding (echinus). See bay. The designation expands the district by approximately 300 buildings. A range of columns that supports a string of continuous arches or a horizontal entablature. Masonry in Byzantine churches with rubble plinths that have been placed in the church walls irregularly. A vaulted space beneath the pavement of a church, often housing relics or tombs. Trusses- framework composed of struts, posts, and rafters, which may support a roof, bridge, or other similar structure. Masonry made entirely out of plinths (with the typical red color) is encountered in Constantinople. forces. Probably the most frequently met and archetypal church of the Christian art, since it was widely – if not exclusively – used during the early Christian period. How many do you know? A finely-grained, foliated rock, native to Pennsylvania, Vermont, and New York, and found in many colors. Windows that are made up of many small, diamond-shaped panes of glass, common in Colonial and Colonial Revival buildings. Shapes demarcated upon masonry by scored lines. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. It is distinguished in circular, octagonal, hexagonal, three-conch and tetra-conch according to its form. A projection from a vertical surface that provides structural and/or visual support for overhanging elements such as cornices, balconies, and eaves. Pillars can be round or square in section, and are most often made of brick, stone, cement, or other masonry, although substantial wooden timbers can be formed into pillars. See stick-work. Like-a-picture, charming, quaint. Small, rectangular-shaped slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface, overlapping one another from top to bottom. French Baroque architecture melded traditional French architectural forms (such as steep roofs and irregular rooflines) with classical Italian elements (such as columns, porticos, and segmental pediments), and greatly influenced the non-religious architecture of 18th-century Europe. Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. See bay window. Ever the imitators, but rarely the inventors, the ancient Romans grafted the volute scrolls of the Ionic order onto the capitals of the Corinthian order to result in the Composite Order. window. Components are uniquely identifiable, non-trivial, nearly independent devices, individuals, organizations, organisms, elements, building blocks, parts, or sub-assemblies that may be collected together to cooperate or to serve a common purpose. Stoas usually surrounded. The part of a building that rises above the building’s eaves. Later examples were built as two stories, with a roof supporting the inner, where shops or sometimes offices were located. In ancient Rome, the Doric order was often replaced with the “Tuscan” order indigenous to the Italian peninsula; it consisted of an unfluted shaft, a simply molded capital, and a base. Jacobean architecture made use of many classical elements, such as columns, pilasters, and arcades, but it did so in a free and fanciful manner, rather than according to strict classical tradition. Statues of men and women dressed in ancient Grecian or Roman attire. If you have a word to contribute to our glossary, please email us. A window that is fully arched at its top. barrel vault, fan vault). The principal exterior face of a building, usually the front. The continuous platform of masonry on which a colonnade rests; the uppermost level of the stepped base (crepidoma) of a Greek temple. The last Byzantine period marked by the reign of the Palaeologan dynasty (13th – 15th c.). In Doric columns, they meet in a sharp edge; in Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite columns, they are separated by a narrow strip. Basic Definitions. https://uxplanet.org/information-architecture-basics-for-designers-b5d43df62e20 A floor plan in which there are no (or few) hallways, and rooms open directly onto one another, often through wide doorways. The first Christian centuries, between the 4th and the 6th or the 7th century A.D. A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form. Arch. The room at the rear of a Greek temple, behind the temple. The space inside the triangular piece is called the “tympanum,” and is often decorated. In Greece we encounter them during the Byzantine and post Byzantine period. Based on the connection between these two parts the type is subdivided into the following categories: complex four-columned, semi-complex four-columned, simple four-columned and simple two-columned. A colonnaded porch in front of the facade of a church, in early Christian architecture often serving as the fourth side of an atrium; also a transverse vestibule preceding the church nave and aisles. A protective covering over a gate. Architecture constructed in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603); Elizabethan architecture followed Tudor architecture, and preceded Jacobean architecture. Column- an upright pillar that is often made from stone or concrete, which may be used to support an arch or roof. Saltbox roofs are common to the architecture of Colonial New England. This type originates from the Roman mausoleum and during the early Christian period it was mainly used in martyria. The celebrations from the mariological circle are those related to the Virgin Mary (The Nativity, The Presentation, The Annunciation, The Assumption). If raised over a square or polygonal base transitional squinches or pendentives must be inserted at the corners of the base to transform it into a near circle. Regency Style Early 19th century architectural style (notably in London) associated with the British Prince Regent, later King George IV (1762-1830). A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. Due to the impermanent nature of this construction, very few Poteau- en-terre buildings remain. An arch consisting of two opposing “S”-curves meeting in a point at the apex. When combined with pilasters, columns, or shafts, it is called a compound pier. A plaster used as a coating for walls and ceilings, and often used for decoration; it is common to many parts of the world, particularly to the Mediterranean region and to the regions of the United States once colonized by Spain (i.e., Florida and California). The rear slope often very nearly meets the ground. Long slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface in a horizontal fashion, overlapping one another from top to bottom. An Ionic column is tall and slender, with a fluted shaft of 24 flutes, a capital with prominent volute scrolls, and an elegantly molded base. An upper story of a building that projects out over the story beneath it, common in Colonial American architecture. Whether you’re a budding architect or just looking to build your own house and want to be up-to-date on the lingo, understanding all the different architectural drawing abbreviations can be important. B.F.E. Furthermore, unlike cross-in-square churches, in the octagonal ones it is easier to see the Pantokrator in the dome, since the dome is visible from the entrance because the church is bigger. Fenestration: It’s a blanket terms for the design, construction, and presence of any openings in a building.Think windows, doors, vents, wall panels, skylights, curtain walls or louvers. Besides, one architectural origin of the basilica (since there are many disputes on its origin) are the Roman roads that had arcades supported by columns on their sides. Please be sure to include an email address in your billing information so that we may keep you informed of activities and events. The free-flowing floor plans of the Shingle and Prairie Styles are precursors to the modern floor plans of the 1930s onward, which emphasize a great deal of open space. The upper part of a Classical order comprising architrave, frieze, and cornice. On the capital, large conjoined Ionic volutes are combined with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. Also known as a battlement. A garden structure built up over a path or narrow terrace, lined with evenly spaced columns or posts that support a wooden-framed roof without sheathing. A railing consisting of a row of balusters supporting a rail. When sightseeing in France you might find some of these terms useful. A window frame that is hinged on one vertical side, and which swings open to either the inside or the outside of the building. There are a number of important structural terms that are important for individuals interested in learning more about architecture. A mixing of various architectural styles and ornamentation of the past and present, including ornamentation from Asia. It may run along the upper portion of a wall just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a classical entablature that lies between the architrave and cornice. A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church. Church architectural type that makes its appearance in the second half of the 13th century primarily in mainland Greece. forces. A structural element that provides support over an opening in a masonry wall (i.e., made of brick or stone). A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet. Building complex annexed to the early Christian basilicas. A horizontal band, sometimes painted or decorated with sculpture or moldings. Characteristic and elaborate church masonry style of the Helladic school. A traditional community of Native Americans living in the southwestern United States. An enclosed brick or stone oven built adjacent to a hearth in early Dutch Colonial houses. If the apex or base is split, the pediment is described as broken. A semi-circular or semi-elliptical window, with wedge-shaped panes of glass separated by mullions arranged like the spokes of a wagon wheel. A small, square cupola that functions as a lookout tower, located at the top of a building. It would be very hard for you to learn much without first a thorough understanding of the essential architectural terms. A large gilt statue of Athena once stood inside the temple. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. All-in Rate: In Construction, the term means the … Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. Some important definitions which will help beginners to know basics of architecture. the last phase of Gothic architecture c.1335-1530 characterized by vertical tracery; also called Perpendicular. The central, longitudinal space of a basilica church, separated from the aisles or from side chaples, and extending from the main entrance to the transept or to the apse. Similar to a terrace, a patio is an outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. At the top of a capital, a thick rectangular slab of stone that serves as the flat, broad surface on which the architrave rests. One of the five Classical orders; favored in late Roman architecture. Discovered by excavation in 1748, they provided much insight into the life, times, and architecture of the ancient Romans of the 1st century. Architecture: terms used in architecture: abutment or abuttal, architectonic, architectonics, astylar, bolster | Collins English Word Lists There he would get undressed, get anointed with the sacred oil and recite the Symbol of the Faith in front of the bishop. This course also provides you with a good This is because a lot of the words in English were borrowed from French before and during the Renaissance period. The good news is that almost all of the words associated with architecture (l’architecture) are the same in English and French or very similar. See patio. The sides meet at a ridge at the center of the roof. Pueblos consist of many adjacent houses made of adobe brick, although these houses are often, themselves, called pueblos. A characteristic (particularly of classical architecture) by which the two sides of a facade or architectural floor plan of a building present mirror images of one another. An exceptionally tall portion of a building. Abacus: A slab, the uppermost member of a capital. An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade. A timber dwelling, cottage, or lodge with a gable roof and wide eaves, indigenous to the Swiss Alps, but now found worldwide. The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall. In the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, a kitchen inspired by the kitchens of Colonial America. A concave molding used as the intermediate part of a base. The arrangement of the baptistery was in accordance with the baptism ritual. See eclecticism. A wooden siding treatment in which wide, vertically oriented boards are separated by narrower strips of wood called “battens,” which form the joints between the boards. They are churches of small dimensions consisted of a basic square space covered with a dome usually supported by four barrel-vaults. structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. Balconet: A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. A structural support, similar to a column, but larger and more massive, and often without ornamentation. A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides. 1. Beam- a long, sturdy piece of w… As a bake oven’s walls are made of solid, insulating materials, it can maintain an even temperature for many hours. A band of richly sculpted ornamentation on a building. The shallow concave channels cut vertically into the shaft of a column or pilaster. See gingerbreading. Slate has been used to roof buildings in the United States since the colonial era. A roof with two slopes – front and rear– joining at a single ridge line parallel to the entrance façade. A small but prominent portion of a building that juts out from a main building, either above its roof line, or to the side, and which is identified by a unique (usually diminutive) height and individual roof type. A pavilion may also stand alone, separate from a larger building, or may be connected to a main building by a terrace or path. In ancient Greece, the Doric order was the masculine, and the most preferred, order. Elizabethan architecture was revived in the United States in the early 20th century. Difficulty: Average. However, their disadvantage is that externally these churches look massive due to the big diameter of their dome. An entrance porch with columns or pilasters and a roof, and often crowned by a triangular pediment. The colonial kitchen display of the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was exceedingly popular amongst Colonial Revival enthusiasts. It is a variation of the cross-in-square church but in this case the dome is supported by eight pilasters peripherally. A curved vault that is erected on a circular base and that is semicircular, pointed, or bulbous in section. Materials used can … A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture. Being the style descriptor, the term was employed in as early as the mid 1950s. Adobe bricks are often bonded together with mud- or lime-mortar joints, and coats of lime-and-sand stucco often cover adobe walls to prevent them from eroding in the rain. Attic windows are common to ancient Greek and Greek Revival architecture. The reign of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which commenced upon the coronation of Queen Victoria on June 20, 1837 and concluded upon her death on January 22, 1901 (Victoria was also crowned the Empress of India on May 1, 1876). A supporting vertical pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. A window lighting an attic story, and often located in a cornice. See what you can do with this array of words from A-J ! The term used to describe columns placed between the ends of two walls, commonly projecting from the ends of the cella of a small Greek Temple. A form of plaster made of mud, clay and moss used in poteaux-en-terre construction in French Colonial architecture, particularly in Louisiana. A four-sided hipped roof featuring two slopes on each side, the lower slopes being very steep, almost vertical, and the upper slopes sometimes being so horizontal that they are not visible from the ground. Thus we start with some of the terms that help describe a building’s basic form: the plan and roof shape. Two of the sides are trapezoidal in shape, while the remaining two sides are triangular, and thus meet the ridge at its end-points. Rafters that extend beyond the eaves of a roof. An outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. Referring to a temple surrounded by a double range of columns. The basics are simple—architecture is about people, places, and things. Sliding doors are popular in such a plan, as are central living rooms. © 2020 - The Trust for Architectural Easements, Selling or Buying an Easement-Encumbered Property, Energy-efficient properties of historic buildings. The use of adobe bricks dates back to prehistoric times, and continues today. The newly baptized dressed in white received the chrism by the bishop in the chrismarion, the room north of the photisterion where from he entered the church in order to attend the mass in front of the Holy Bema for the first time. In Roman Doric, the column is slimmer than the Greek prototype, is unflutted, and stands on a low base; the capital is smaller. Columns may be plain or ornamental. Blind arcade or arcading: the same applied to the wall surface. , commonly for public use. They imitate characters of the Arabic alphabet. The principal hall of an Aegean dwelling, oblong in shape and formed with sloping sides and a flat top, with a passage leading to an underground burial chamber. The advantage of this type is that the church interior is much broader than the interior of a cross-in-square church, where the interior dome abutments take up much space preventing the people from having a clear view of the sanctuary. hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. Thus, the shape of a cross is clearly formed in the roof, hence the name of this church type. When met in Greek churches (Ossios Loukas in Phocis), it is considered to be an influence from Constantinople. A plan, strategy, or model is always an arrangement, parcelling, and structuring of spatial relationships. When the ridge line of a gable-roofed house is perpendicular to the street, the roof is said to be a “gable-end roof.”. Around the 3rd century it was used as a mausoleum because it symbolizes heaven. The bell roof has origins in Normandy, toured extensively by Stanford White, who incorporated bell roofs into many of his Shingle Style houses and buildings. window. It includes elements of engineering and art. A person in a wheelchair (people), in Boston, Massachusetts (places), with the backdrop of the famous 19th century Trinity Church reflected in the glass exterior of a 20th-century skyscraper, the John Hancock Tower (things). Shallow, vertical grooves in the shaft of a column or pilaster. A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. Pier is also the term used for the solid mass between windows, doors, and arches. The Corinthian column was the showiest of the three basic columns, with a tall acanthus leaf capital, a molded base, and a slender, fluted shaft. The first central plan building appeared as a hall in Roman baths. Brickwork made up of rows of bricks of alternating colors, typically red and white. This guide groups terms according to how we generally perceive a building, from the large to the small. Often, vines are trained around the wooden framework of a pergola, and the pergola may lead from one building to another. In ancient Rome, the Ionic order was much more prominently utilized than the Doric order. These buildings were open to the public; merchants could sell their goods, artists could display their artwork, and religious gatherings could take place. The movable frames in a window in which window panes are set. Finally the baptism in the font would take place with the symbolism of diving and ascension. The story of Hansel and Gretel is a fairy tale in which two children lost in a forest come upon a gingerbread house trimmed with candy, but which is presided over by a child-eating witch. A supporting substructure for a column or statue. Double doors are often referred to as “French doors”, due to their preponderance in French architecture. Architectural terms used in describing heritage structures. Adobe buildings are particularly common in the southwestern United States, where they are indigenous. A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. Arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. At times, gingerbreading could be superfluous and almost gaudy, with excessive frills and curlicues. Architecture ABC's 10 questions Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Apr 24 15. Small rectangular blocks that, when placed together in a row abutting a molding, suggest a row of teeth. We will include terms that are very hard to find Picturesque architecture and landscape architecture evolved in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, and influenced American architecture and landscapes in the 19th century; winding paths, asymmetrical compositions, rustic or exotic elements (see pagoda), and faux ruins were characteristic of picturesque architecture and landscapes. of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Corinthian orders). A belvedere is a square-shaped cupola. Colored glass. The oldest (dating to the 6th-century B.C.E.) A structure, often of central plan, erected on a site sacred to Christianity, symbolizing an act of martyrdom or marking the grave of a martyr who died for their faith. Colonial revivalists of the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries looked back upon colonial dwellings, especially colonial kitchens, with nostalgia for earlier, pre-industrial times. Architecture: The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings. Picturesque settings were favored for their emotional associations. This church type appears in Greece during the first half of the 10th century. Help support our programs in advocacy, funding and outreach. In ancient Greece, the Ionic order was the feminine order, and the most appropriate for temples constructed in homage to goddesses. uplift: raising of a structure in response to structural. A gallerie connects interior rooms together, much like a hallway. A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers. A triangular space formed by the raking cornices (sloping sides) and horizontal cornice of a gabled temple; also used above a door or window. This architectural type was widely used during the early Christian period. Architects cluster uses together, string out rooms, arrange adjacencies, propose flows of people through circulation, separate, join or interrelate inside and outside or rooms to rooms. Latin: “abacus” = table, tablet. Large, prominent masonry units outlining windows, doorways, segments, and corners of buildings. Start studying Basic Architecture Terms. A turret is usually cylindrical, and is topped by a conical roof. Basic Architectural Styles Everyone Should Know When you put together your wish list for your new home, your REALTOR will likely want to know what architectural style you’re looking for. Alternatively, here’s a more manageable list of 45 construction terms and concepts every architect should know. Architecture constructed in England during the reigns of James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II (1603-1688); Jacobean architecture followed Elizabethan architecture, and preceded the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones. A roof shaped like a bell, and typically situated on top of a round tower. This is an architectural, product, interior and graphic design, which commonly defines mid 20 th century developments in modern architecture, design and urban development from around 1933 to 1965. The projecting edge of a roof that overhangs an exterior wall to protect it from the rain. A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. In architectural terms, what is an apron? Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. Architectural Styles in Manitoba. A roof with four sloped sides. A vertical supporting element, similar to a small column. In Classical architecture, its parts are governed by proportional rules. Rooflines can be highly decorative, with balustrades, pediments, statuary, dormer windows, cross gables, etc. The period after the end of the Byzantine Empire, namely after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Architects tend to be overly specific and use words rarely uttered by regular human beings during the course of normal conversations. The inclined, sloping framing members of a base separated by mullions arranged like the of... You informed of activities and events Greek temple, containing the cult statue of god or goddess five classical ;. Term used for cutting curves and curlicues, behind the temple Palaeologan dynasty ( 13th – 15th c..! From, a patio is a variation of the three basic orders of Greek... Construction, very few Poteau- en-terre buildings remain and in the upper part of a structure response... In such a plan, as of wooden beams or metal bars which... And open to the small, non-structural rectangular column, but larger and more with flashcards, games, is! 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Basic square space covered with straw, which is layered so as to shed rain quickly and effectively folk. A Roman basilica or a Christian church ; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity require! Provides support over an opening in a kiln or under the sun to French Colonial architecture of Colonial America used... All-In Rate: in construction, local climates, and to which the is. Beginning they spread in N. Africa, Syria and Armenia Roman mausoleum and the! Wall ( i.e., made of adobe bricks dates back to prehistoric times, and very! Wall or parapet exhibits the traditional ethos encompasses folk lore, music, art, dress, and between there! The frieze of a building ; a large gilt statue of Athena once stood the... ; or the projecting lowest portion of a basic square space covered with tiles that are exposed the! For sacrifice or offerings in antiquity most iconic buildings of ancient Greece, the term used for celebration., cross-in-square churches are more elegant roofs are common in the late-19th and early 20th-centuries, a patio is technique! A bracket from it by columns or pilasters and a capital on top of the Faith in of... Projecting blocks ( mutules ) we generally perceive a building, often highly decorated a capital we come across mainly... The 11th century for cutting curves and curlicues masonry made entirely out of clay the Roman Pantheon hexagonal!