What attracted European trading companies to India? Fig. These revenues could be used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta. Colonial rule in India brought in some new ideas of administration and reform but its power rested on its military strength. they would remain safe and their rights and This effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trade also led to intense conflict with local rulers. new laws so that the rebels could be convicted with ease, and then moved into From Trade to Territory – The company establishes power CBSE Class 8 History Chapter with detailed explanation of the chapter ‘The company establishes power ‘ along with question answers. Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General, introduced several administrative reforms, notably in the sphere of justice. Here is a passage from Edmund Burke’s eloquent opening speech during the impeachment of Warren Hastings: I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose rights he has trodden under his foot and whose country he has turned into a desert. Rani They fought a prolonged war with Afghanistan between 1838 and 1842 and established indirect Company rule there. Although he was acquitted, he committed suicide in 1774. The cavalry dominated the army and the Mughal state did not feel the need to have a large professionally trained infantry. They were unhappy about their pay, allowances and In 1856, Governor-General Canning decided Robert Clive himself amassed a fortune in India. This solved a major problem that the company had earlier faced. Fig. 8 – Cornwallis receiving the sons of Tipu Sultan as hostages, painted by Daniel Orme, 1793. But it also meant something else. This toy- tiger is now kept in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Officer, Norgate, to write his memoirs. His gun did not work and his dagger fell to the ground. In 1849, Governor-General Dalhousie By the time the first English ships sailed down the west coast of Africa, round the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese had already established their presence in the western coast of India, and had their base in Goa. ... to write a history of his reign. Hyderabad was also forced to cede territories on similar grounds. From Trade to Territory – The company establishes power Class 8 History Chapter 2, Explanation, Question Answers. This was the base from which the Company’s traders, known at that time as “factors”, operated. Accusing the Company of deceit, they claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the nawab. (c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ___________. A member of the British Cabinet was Powers of the East India Company were Learn mughal empire chapter 18 with free interactive flashcards. The Mughal Empire Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 4. Later on, the highest number of mansabs was raised from 10,000 to 12,000; thus there was no fixed number of … 11 a, b, c – Expansion of British territorial power in India. Collect pictures, stories, poems and information about any of the following – the Rani of Jhansi, Mahadji Sindhia, Haidar Ali, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord Dalhousie or any other contemporary ruler of your region. 11 – Maharaja Ranjit Singh holding court. 6. As trade expanded, the Company persuaded merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory. Fig. Ans. Only in the last – the Battle of Seringapatam – did the Company ultimately win a victory. Main provisions of the Act of 1858 were: i. Why did the Indian soldiers get angry at the British? How then did they come to be masters of a vast empire? Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces in You are living in England in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. Could individuals so easily give up their caste and religious feelings? By 1696 it began building a fort around the settlement. A visitor to the Cape in 1824 has left a moving account of what he saw at a slave auction: Having learned that there was to be sale of cattle, farm-stock, etc by auction, … we halted our wagon for the purpose of procuring fresh oxen. Till then it would take anywhere between six and eight months to travel to India by sea. Write a letter home to your mother telling her about your luxurious life and contrasting it with your earlier life in Britain. What information does … They were severely punished, and since the issue did not die down, in Overview The last powerful Mughal ruler was Aurangzeb and after his death in 1707, many Mughal Q41. Ans. Q47. Mr Chairman, at this moment I stand astonished at my moderation. The urge to secure markets therefore led to fierce battles between the trading companies. The British were furious. Short Q&A: Q1: Write short notes on Akbar's religious policy. The French East India Company had a similar remit. Lakshmibai was defeated and killed in June 1858. 9.8 The Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri 237 bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spacious homes for the nobility. Sometimes the Company forced the states into a “subsidiary alliance”. After the British conquest of Bengal, Calcutta grew from a small village to a big city. They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve and further the interests of the Company. There chapter wise Practice Questions with complete solutions are available for download in myCBSEguide website and mobile app. N.B. One of these was Kalikata which later developed into a city, known as Calcutta. It wanted more territories and more revenue. 13 – A sawar of Bengal in the service of the Company, painted by an unknown Indian artist, 1780. Lucknow was taken in March 1858. The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India. How did British plan to bring Mughal dynasty to an end? 20 Causes behind the Downfall of the Mughals in India. It imagined that Russia might expand across Asia and enter India from the north-west. Fig. suppress the rebellion though his own son was a rebel and was killed by the In 1659 he killed Afzal Khan, a notable general of Bijapur. Having failed to work with puppet nawabs, Clive declared: “We must indeed become nawabs ourselves.”. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. Soon the French traders arrived on the scene. Look at these maps along with a present- day political map of India. We do not take the responsibility of how the information provided by this website is used or the consequence of its use. With this charter the Company could venture across the oceans, looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices. The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. sepoys. In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. With their defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas’ dream of ruling from Delhi was shattered. The treaties that followed the Battle of Buxar forced Nawab Shujauddaulah to give up much of his authority. Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers. that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king and after his death none He Q45. The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. Why did the Indian soldiers get angry at the British? 12 – The trial of Warren Hastings, painted by R.G. They were given training in archery (teer-andazi) and the use of the sword. Let us see how this happened. (d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered. 1- Tajiks from Kabul to Herat, they were a component of Persian nobility, their presence in the army was not that large. हिंदी - बाल महाभारत कथा (Chapter 01 - 20), हिंदी - बाल महाभारत कथा (Chapter 21 - 40). claims to land would not be denied. This solved a major problem that the Company had earlier faced. Pollard, 1789When Warren Hastings went back to England in 1785, Edmund Burke accused him of being personally responsible for the misgovernment of Bengal. Sitaram Pande was recruited in 1812 as a sepoy in the Bengal Native Army. The Company was worried about his power and keen on a puppet ruler who would willingly give trade concessions and other privileges. Class 7; The Mughal Empire; CBSE History Class 7. As powerful regional kingdoms emerged in various parts of India, Delhi could no longer function as an effective centre. The Governor-General of India was given the An infuriated Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop meddling in the political affairs of his dominion, stop fortification, and pay the revenues. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar. How did the Company suppress the revolt? These moves and the defeat of Bijapur army sent to punish Shivaji alarmed the Mughal officials. After negotiations failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen, and blockaded English ships. The Governor-General of India was given the This meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the East India Company. The Mughal Empire. The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal. announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the family of the king would But in 1792, attacked by the combined forces of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Company, Tipu was forced to sign a treaty with the British by which two of his sons were taken away as hostages. 4. What will be your feelings? Aurangzeb’s farman, for instance, had granted only the Company the right to trade duty free. He helped the British to suppress the rebellion though his own son was a rebel and was killed by the British in front of his eyes. This is what James Mill, the famous economist and political philosopher from Scotland, wrote about the residents appointed by the Company. After the Battle of Plassey, Robert Clive wrote to William Pitt, one of the Principal Secretaries of State to the English monarch, on 7 January 1759 from Calcutta: But so large a sovereignty may possibly be an object too extensive for a mercantile Company … I flatter myself … that there will be little or no difficulty in obtaining the absolute possession of these rich kingdoms: ... Now I leave you to judge, whether an income yearly of two million sterling with the possession of three provinces … be an object deserving the public attention ... After the defeat at Plassey, Sirajuddaulah was assassinated and Mir Jafar made the nawab. Humayun and Bairam Khan carried out a daring raid in a rainstorm like Sher Shah Suri had done at the Battle of Chausa to defeat Humayun. 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